Worker Morale in Russia: An Exploratory Study

28 Pages Posted: 21 Jul 2006

Date Written: January 2006


Despite unanimous agreement in the existing literature that morale influences employee performance, no well-defined measure of morale exists. Our study develops a robust measure of morale and focuses on the factors that influence morale among Russian workers. Survey data were collected from Russian employees at two different points in time, 1995 and 2002, in five Russian cities. Among the workers participating in our study, expectation of receiving a desired reward contributes to high morale, with expected monetary rewards having a larger influence than expected non-monetary rewards, but praise for a job well done and a feeling of accomplishment also contribute positively to employee morale. There is a significant correlation between positive attitudes toward work and morale, and a positive correlation between performance assessment and morale. Demographic characteristics (age and gender) have no discernable influence on morale when controls are included for work experience.

Keywords: Morale, Russia, Expected rewards, Motivation, Performance

JEL Classification: J28, J33, P23

Suggested Citation

Linz, Susan J., Worker Morale in Russia: An Exploratory Study (January 2006). William Davidson Institute Working Paper No. 816, Available at SSRN: or

Susan J. Linz (Contact Author)

Michigan State University ( email )

Department of Economics
110 Marshall Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
United States
(517) 353-7280 (Phone)
(517) 432-1068 (Fax)

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