Penalty Shoot-Outs: Before or after Extra Time?

20 Pages Posted: 28 Jun 2006

See all articles by Juan D. Carrillo

Juan D. Carrillo

University of Southern California - Department of Economics; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Date Written: March 2006

Abstract

This paper proposes a rule to determine the winner of a soccer match which is different from the traditional penalty shoot-outs at the end of extra time. We show that games can be more attractive if penalties are shot before extra time and the outcome counts only if the tie is preserved during extra time. In general, this rule will promote offense by the team that loses the penalty shoot-outs and it will promote defense by the team that wins the penalty shoot-outs. We provide conditions on the marginal effect of offensive play in the probabilities of scoring and conceding a goal such that the proposed rule dominates the current one. Last, we determine a class of functions that satisfies these conditions. More generally, the paper shows how the ordering of tasks may affect the incentives to exert and allocate effort.

Keywords: Sports economics, effort allocation, implicit incentives

JEL Classification: Z0

Suggested Citation

Carrillo, Juan D., Penalty Shoot-Outs: Before or after Extra Time? (March 2006). CEPR Discussion Paper No. 5579, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=912689

Juan D. Carrillo (Contact Author)

University of Southern California - Department of Economics ( email )

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Los Angeles, CA 90089
United States
213-740-3526 (Phone)
213-740-8543 (Fax)

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

London
United Kingdom

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