The Determinants of COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality across Countries

39 Pages Posted: 14 Apr 2021 Last revised: 11 May 2021

See all articles by Dianna Chang

Dianna Chang

Singapore University of Social Sciences

Xin (Simba) Chang

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University

Yu He

Central University of Finance and Economics (CUFE) - School of Economics

Kelvin Jui Keng Tan

University of Queensland - Business School; Financial Research Network (FIRN)

Date Written: May 11, 2021

Abstract

We identify 19 predetermined country-level factors significantly related to weekly COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across 109 countries between January and the end of 2020. Aggravating factors, which increase infections and deaths, include population, the median age of the population, the male-to-female ratio, population density, democracy, political corruption, GDP per capita, income inequality, international tourism activities, and life satisfaction and happiness. Mitigating factors, which reduce morbidity and mortality, include temperature, the education level, religious diversity, media freedom, female leadership, the strength of legal systems, public trust in government, SARS experiences, and healthcare infrastructure. The number of COVID-19 tests is positively (negatively) related to confirmed infection (death) cases. Dominance analysis shows that the top five determinants, which collectively explain approximately 70% of the cross-country variation in morbidity, are population, international tourism activities, media freedom, SARS experiences, and the median age of the population.

Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Morbidity and Mortality; Cross-country Determinants

JEL Classification: I10; I18; J10; Z30

Suggested Citation

Chang, Dianna and Chang, Xin and He, Yu and Tan, Kelvin Jui Keng, The Determinants of COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality across Countries (May 11, 2021). Nanyang Business School Research Paper No. 21-06, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3824101 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3824101

Dianna Chang

Singapore University of Social Sciences ( email )

461 Clementi Road
599491
Singapore

Xin Chang (Contact Author)

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University ( email )

Singapore, 639798
Singapore

HOME PAGE: https://personal.ntu.edu.sg/changxin/

Yu He

Central University of Finance and Economics (CUFE) - School of Economics ( email )

Beijing
China

Kelvin Jui Keng Tan

University of Queensland - Business School ( email )

Brisbane, Queensland 4072
Australia

Financial Research Network (FIRN) ( email )

C/- University of Queensland Business School
St Lucia, 4071 Brisbane
Queensland
Australia

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