COVID-19 in Scandinavia
35 Pages Posted: 5 Mar 2021
Date Written: February 16, 2021
We address two research questions. First, how did the COVID-19 disease progress in Scandinavia in 2020? Second, did Sweden’s unique public health care response lead to differential infection and mortality rates during 2020? We use synthetic control techniques to model COVID-19 dynamics, comparing Sweden to a synthetic control unit. We show that stricter lock-down policies are associated with fewer COVID-19 infections and deaths. This finding holds in the first and second waves experienced in Scandinavia. We document several important health care metrics including infection and mortality rates, reproduction rates, lockdown stringency, mobility of people, infection positivity rates, testing, and vaccination rates in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
Note: Funding Statement: Funding from the Novo Nordisk Foundation.
Declaration of Interests: We have no known potential conflicts of interests in writing this research paper that might influence the content.
Keywords: COVID-19, Lockdown, Government Policy
JEL Classification: I18
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation