Financial and Total Wealth Inequality with Declining Interest Rates
92 Pages Posted: 1 Mar 2021 Last revised: 13 Jul 2021
Date Written: February 24, 2021
Financial wealth inequality and long-term real interest rates track each other closely over the post-war period. Faced with unanticipated lower real rates, households which rely more on financial wealth must see large capital gains to afford the consumption that they planned before the decline in rates. Lower rates beget higher financial wealth inequality. Inequality in total wealth, the sum of financial and human wealth and the relevant concept for household welfare, rises much less than financial wealth inequality and even declines at the top of the wealth distribution. A standard incomplete markets model reproduces the observed increase in financial wealth inequality in response to a decline in real interest rates because high financial-wealth households have a financial portfolio with high duration.
Keywords: wealth inequality, declining real rates, human wealth, financial wealth
JEL Classification: E01, E24, E25, E44, G12, G51
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