Exploring Structured Scripting Cartographic Technique of GMT for Ocean Seafloor Modeling: A Case of the East Indian Ocean
Maritime Technology and Research, 3(2), 162-184 (2021). DOI: 10.33175/mtr.2021.248158
23 Pages Posted: 23 Mar 2021
Date Written: February 14, 2021
This paper examines spatial variations in the geomorphology of the Ninety East Ridge (NER), located in the Indian Ocean. The NER is an extraordinary long linear bathymetric feature with topography reflecting complex geophysical setting and geologic evolution. The research is based on a compilation of high-resolution bathymetric, geological, and gravity datasets clipped for the study area extent (65° - 107°E, 35°S - 21°N): General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008, EGM96). The submarine geomorphology of the NER was modeled by digitized cross-sectional profiles using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). The availability of the method is explained by 1) the free datasets; 2) the open source GMT toolset; 3) the available tutorials of the GMT and the codes explained in this work. Three segments of the NER were selected, digitized, and modeled: 1) northern 89°E, 7°S to 90°E, 7°N; 2) central 88.4°E, 14.7°S to 88.8°E, 8.2°S; 3) southern 87.9°E, 17°S to 87.5°E, 27°S. Measured depths were visualized in graphs, compared, and statistically analyzed by the histograms. The northern segment has a steepness of 21.3° at the western slopes, and 14.5° at the eastern slope. The slopes on the eastern flank have dominant SE orientation. The central segment has a bell-shaped form, with the highest steepness comparing to the northern and southern segments. The eastern flank has a steepness of 49.5°. A local depression at a distance of 50 km off from the axis (90°E) continues parallel to the NER, with the shape of the narrow minor trench. The western slope has a steepness of 57.6°, decreasing to 15.6°. The southern segment has a dome-like shape form. Compared to the northern and central segments, it has a less pronounced ridge crest, with a steepness of 24.9° on the west. The eastern flank has a steepness of 36.8° until 70 km, gradually becoming steeper at 44.23°. A local minor trench structure can be seen on its eastern flank (100 km off the axis). This corresponds to the very narrow long topographic depressions stretching parallel to this segment of the NER at 90.5°E. The study contributes to regional geographic studies of Indian Ocean geomorphology and cartographic presentation of GMT functionality for marine research and oceanographic studies.
Keywords: Ninety East Ridge, Indian Ocean, GMT, Cartography, Geophysics, Topography
JEL Classification: Y92, C00, C02, C21, C31, C60, C61, C63, C65, C80, C88, Q00, Q01, Q24, Q25, Q51, Q54, Q55
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation