GRASS GIS Modules for Topographic and Geophysical Analysis of the ETOPO1 DEM and Raster Data: North Fiji Basin, Pacific Ocean
Geographia Napocensis, 14(1), 27-38. DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.13337318
12 Pages Posted: 11 Feb 2021
Date Written: December 5, 2020
The paper presents topographic analysis based on the raster data (NetCDF and grid formats) and visualization of the geophysical datasets that resembles the topographic surface. Geographically, the research focuses on the region of North Fiji Basin, South Pacific Ocean. North Fiji Basin is one of the marginal basins located at the converging boundary between the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates and is notable for complex geological settings. Methodology is based on GRASS GIS and includes scripting and cartographic visualization. Data include ETOPO1, GEBCO, EGM96 gravity and geoid raster grids imported to GRASS GIS via GDAL library (‘r.in.gdal’ module) from NetCDF and GRD formats, evaluated and visualized. Several GRASS modules were used as a sequential scripting for displaying and modelling data. Geomorphometric analysis (slopes, curvature, aspect, elevation) was performed by module ‘r.slope.aspect’ based on ETOPO1 grid. Statistical data analysis (histograms, polar diagram) for topographic and geoid gravitational fields were visualized by combination of GRASS modules d.rast, g.region, d.polar, d.histogram, d.grid, d.legend, d.text. Topographic analysis reveal that free-air gravity anomaly mark the continental shelf-slope border showing that generally, geophysical settings are dominated by the topographic effect. These observations are consistent with the inferred prominent role of the geophysical settings. The histograms reveal that topography (trenches, abyssal plains, shelf areas) has values between -5,000 and -1,000 m, and a clear peak with major values between 100 and 350 m above sea level. This distribution indicates that dominating depths of the ocean floor in North Fiji Basin are between -1,500 to -3,000 m. The aspect map of the ETOPO1 initial raw raster grid show that the surface has mostly 50°-110° oriented slope followed by data range in 250°-300° oriented slopes which is well correlating with submarine topography and general relief forms. The steepening of the gravity values between 50 and 55 mGal and 58 to 63 mGal indicates geoid undulations suggesting that bathymetry is controlled by the geological settings in the study area. Console- based scripts of GRASS GIS are presented together with cartographic outputs showing its effectiveness for the geographic spatial analysis.
Keywords: GRASS GIS, Transect, Profile, Topography, Fiji, Pacific Ocean, Bathymetry
JEL Classification: Y92, Q00, Q01, Q20, Q24, Q25, Q40, Q47, Q50, Q51, Q53, Q54, Q55, Q56, C00, C02, C52, C55, C80
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation