Indirect Costs of Government Aid and Intermediary Supply Effects: Lessons from the Paycheck Protection Program

89 Pages Posted: 23 Nov 2020 Last revised: 27 Jun 2021

See all articles by Tetyana Balyuk

Tetyana Balyuk

Emory University - Goizueta Business School

Nagpurnanand Prabhala

The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School

Manju Puri

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business; NBER

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Date Written: November 2020

Abstract

The $669 billion Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) provides highly subsidized financing to small businesses. The PPP is a positive shock in financing supply to the small, highly constrained publicly listed firms in our sample and has average positive treatment effects. Yet, uptake is not universal. In fact, several firms return PPP funds before use, and curiously, experience positive valuation effects when they do so. These firms desire and the markets value the release from government oversight even if it means giving up cheap funding. The PPP is also a demand shock to the banks making PPP loans. Intermediary supply effects shape PPP delivery. Larger borrowers enjoy earlier PPP access, an effect that is more pronounced in big banks. The results have implications for policy design, the costs of being public, and bank-firm relationships.

Suggested Citation

Balyuk, Tetyana and Prabhala, Nagpurnanand and Puri, Manju, Indirect Costs of Government Aid and Intermediary Supply Effects: Lessons from the Paycheck Protection Program (November 2020). NBER Working Paper No. w28114, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3735682

Tetyana Balyuk (Contact Author)

Emory University - Goizueta Business School ( email )

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Nagpurnanand Prabhala

The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School ( email )

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Manju Puri

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business ( email )

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United States
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NBER

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