Gender Bias in Agricultural Child Labor: Evidence from Survey Design Experiments

45 Pages Posted: 9 Nov 2020

See all articles by Jose Galdo

Jose Galdo

McMaster University

Ana Dammert

Carleton University

Degnet Abebaw

affiliation not provided to SSRN


Agricultural labor accounts for the largest share of child labor worldwide. Yet, measurement of farm labor statistics is challenging due to its inherent seasonality, variable and irregular work schedules, and the varying saliences of individuals' work activities. The problem is further complicated by the presence of widespread gender stratification of work and social lives. This study reports the findings of three randomized survey design interventions conducted over the agricultural coffee calendar in rural Ethiopia to address whether response by proxy rather than self-report has effects on the measurement of child labor statistics within and across seasons. While the estimates do not report differences for boys across all seasons, the analysis shows sizable self/proxy discrepancies in child labor statistics for girls. Overall, the results highlight concerns on the use of survey proxy respondents in agricultural labor, particularly for girls. The main findings have important implications for policymakers about data collection in rural areas in developing countries.

Keywords: survey design, farm labor, gender, labor statistics, child labor

JEL Classification: C8, J22, 012, Q12

Suggested Citation

Galdo, Jose and Dammert, Ana and Abebaw, Degnet, Gender Bias in Agricultural Child Labor: Evidence from Survey Design Experiments. IZA Discussion Paper No. 13826, Available at SSRN:

Jose Galdo (Contact Author)

McMaster University ( email )

1280 Main Street West
Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4

Ana Dammert

Carleton University ( email )

1125 colonel By Drive
Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6

Degnet Abebaw

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics