The Nitrogen Legacy: The Long-Term Effects of Water Pollution on Human Capital

33 Pages Posted: 7 Feb 2020 Last revised: 8 Feb 2020

See all articles by Esha Dilip Zaveri

Esha Dilip Zaveri

World Bank

Jason Daniel Russ

World Bank

Sebastien Gael Desbureaux

World Bank

Richard Damania

World Bank; University of Adelaide - School of Economics

Aude-Sophie Rodella

World Bank

Giovanna Ribeiro Paiva De Souza

World Bank

Date Written: February 6, 2020

Abstract

The fallout of nitrogen pollution is considered one of the largest global externalities facing the world, impacting air, water, soil, and human health. This paper combines data from the Demographic and Health Survey data set across India, Vietnam, and 33 African countries to analyze the causal links between pollution exposure experienced during the very earliest stages of life and later-life health. The results show that pollution exposure experienced in the critical years of development - from birth until age three - is associated with decreased height as an adult, a well-known indicator of overall health and productivity, and is robust to several statistical checks. Because adult height is related to education, labor productivity, and income, this also implies a loss of earning potential. The analysis begins within an assessment in India, where the data are more available, and is then extended to geographic settings including Vietnam and 33 countries in Africa. The results are consistent and show that early-life exposure to nitrogen pollution in water can lower height-for-age scores during childhood in Vietnam and during infancy in Africa. These findings add to the evidence on the enduring consequences of water pollution and identify a critical area for policy intervention.

Suggested Citation

Zaveri, Esha Dilip and Russ, Jason Daniel and Desbureaux, Sebastien Gael and Damania, Richard and Rodella, Aude-Sophie and Ribeiro Paiva De Souza, Giovanna, The Nitrogen Legacy: The Long-Term Effects of Water Pollution on Human Capital (February 6, 2020). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9143, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3533562

Esha Dilip Zaveri (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Jason Daniel Russ

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Sebastien Gael Desbureaux

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Richard Damania

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States

University of Adelaide - School of Economics ( email )

Adelaide SA, 5005
Australia
+61 8 8303 4933 (Phone)
+61 8 8223 1460 (Fax)

Aude-Sophie Rodella

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Giovanna Ribeiro Paiva De Souza

World Bank

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

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