The Snowball Effect of Crime & Violence: Measuring the Triple-C Impact

67 Pages Posted: 19 Oct 2018 Last revised: 24 Oct 2018

See all articles by Michal Gilad

Michal Gilad

University of Pennsylvania Law School

Abraham Gutman

Philadelphia Inquirer

Stephen Chawaga


Date Written: October 8, 2018


The Article is one of the first to take an inclusive look at Comprehensive Childhood Crime Impact (Triple-C Impact) — the monumental problem of exposure to crime during childhood. This problem is estimated to be one of the most damaging and costly public health and public safety problem in our society today. The Article presents an original empirical analysis revealing the states’ failure to provide effective recourse to the millions of children nationwide who suffer from exposure to crime and violence. Additionally, it provides an in-depth evidence-based investigation into the magnitude of the Triple-C Impact problem, and the full-range of adverse outcomes suffered by affected children, as well as our society as a whole, that result from the states’ deficient practices. The Article establishes the importance of developing effective policies that will enable early identification of, and intervention for, children harmed by crime exposure, in order to facilitate recovery from trauma. It demonstrates how improving state practices will prevent cascading injurious consequences, improving the lives and well-being of millions of children into adulthood, while also providing an almost unparalleled opportunity for savings on fiscal and social costs.

Suggested Citation

Gilad, Michal and Gutman, Abraham and Chawaga, Stephen, The Snowball Effect of Crime & Violence: Measuring the Triple-C Impact (October 8, 2018). Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2018, Available at SSRN:

Michal Gilad (Contact Author)

University of Pennsylvania Law School ( email )

Philadelphia, PA
United States

Abraham Gutman

Philadelphia Inquirer ( email )

400 North Broad St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103
United States

Stephen Chawaga

Independent ( email )

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