Ethno-Racial Origin in US Federal Statistics: 1980-2020

Levy Economics Institute, Working Papers Series No. 857

51 Pages Posted: 19 Dec 2015

See all articles by Joel Perlmann

Joel Perlmann

Bard College - The Levy Economics Institute

Patrick Nevada

Bard College

Date Written: December 17, 2015

Abstract

This paper describes the transformations in federal classification of ethno-racial information since the civil rights era of the 1960s. These changes were introduced in the censuses of 1980 and 2000, and we anticipate another major change in the 2020 Census. The most important changes in 1980 introduced the Hispanic Origin and Ancestry questions and the elimination of two questions on parental birthplace. The latter decision has made it impossible to adequately track the progress of the new second generation. The change in 2000 allowed respondents to declare origins in more than one race; the anticipated change for 2020 will create a single question covering race and Hispanic Origin — or, stated more broadly, race and ethnic origin. We show that the 1980 changes created problems in race and ethnic classification that required a “fix,” and the transformation anticipated for 2020 will be that fix. Creating the unified question in the manner the Census Bureau is testing will accomplish by far the hardest part of what we believe should be done. However, we suggest two additional changes of a much simpler nature: restoring the parental birthplace questions (to the annual American Community Survey) and possibly eliminating the Ancestry question (the information it gathered will apparently now be obtained in the single race-and-ethnicity question). The paper is historical in focus. It surveys how the classification system prior to 1980 dealt with the tension between ethno-racial continuity and assimilation (differently for each major type of group); how the political pressures producing the changes of 1980 and 2000 changed the treatment of that tension; and, finally, the building pressure for a further change.

Suggested Citation

Perlmann, Joel and Nevada, Patrick, Ethno-Racial Origin in US Federal Statistics: 1980-2020 (December 17, 2015). Levy Economics Institute, Working Papers Series No. 857, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2705028 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2705028

Joel Perlmann (Contact Author)

Bard College - The Levy Economics Institute ( email )

Blithewood
Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-5000
United States
914-758-7700 (Phone)
914-758-1149 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.levy.org

Patrick Nevada

Bard College ( email )

Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-5000
United States

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