Rating the Rating Scales

Friedman, Hershey H. and Amoo, Taiwo (1999). "Rating the Rating Scales." Journal of Marketing Management, Winter, 114-123

10 Pages Posted: 30 Sep 2013

See all articles by Hershey H. Friedman

Hershey H. Friedman

Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

Taiwo Amoo

City University of New York (CUNY) - Department of Finance

Date Written: January 15, 1999

Abstract

Rating scales are used quite frequently in research, especially in surveys. Typically, an itemized rating scale asks subjects to choose one response category from several arranged in hierarchical order. Dishonest researchers can, of course, purposefully manipulate the outcome of their research, if they wish, but such biasing may also be totally unintentional. This paper examines issues involved in creating a relatively unbiased rating scale. These include: (1) Connotations of category labels; (2) Response alternative effects; (3) Implicit assumptions of the question; (4) Forced-choice vs. non-forced-choice rating scales; (5) Unbalanced and balanced rating scales; (6) Order effects; (7) Direction of comparison; (8) Optimal number of points; (9) Context effects; (10) Rating approach, e.g., improvement needed, performance, comparison to expectations, comparison to ideal, etc.

Keywords: Rating scales, context effects, measurement bias, unbalanced rating scales, research bias

JEL Classification: C00, C10, C40, I20

Suggested Citation

Friedman, Hershey H. and Amoo, Taiwo, Rating the Rating Scales (January 15, 1999). Friedman, Hershey H. and Amoo, Taiwo (1999). "Rating the Rating Scales." Journal of Marketing Management, Winter, 114-123, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2333648

Hershey H. Friedman (Contact Author)

Brooklyn College of the City University of New York ( email )

Taiwo Amoo

City University of New York (CUNY) - Department of Finance ( email )

2900 Bedford Avenue
Brooklyn, NY 11210
United States

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