Water Scarcity and Birth Outcomes in the Brazilian Semiarid

51 Pages Posted: 6 Oct 2012

See all articles by Rudi Rocha

Rudi Rocha

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)

Rodrigo R. Soares

Columbia University - School of International & Public Affairs (SIPA); Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) - Sao Paulo School of Economics; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Abstract

This paper analyzes the impact of rainfall fluctuations during the gestational period on health at birth. We concentrate on the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil to highlight the role of water scarcity as a determinant of early life health. We find that negative rainfall shocks are robustly correlated with higher infant mortality, lower birth weight, and shorter gestation periods. Mortality effects are concentrated on intestinal infections and malnutrition, and are greatly minimized when the local public health infrastructure is sufficiently developed (municipality coverage of piped water and sanitation). We also find that effects are stronger during the fetal period (2nd trimester of gestation), for children born during the dry season, and for mortality in the first 6 months of life. The results seem to be driven by water scarcity per se, and not by reduced agricultural production. Our estimates suggest that expansions in public health infrastructure would be a cost-effective way of reducing the response of infant mortality to rainfall shocks in the Brazilian semiarid.

Keywords: water, rainfall, health, birth, infant mortality, sanitation, semiarid, Brazil

JEL Classification: I15, I18, H51, Q54

Suggested Citation

Rocha, Rudi and Soares, Rodrigo R., Water Scarcity and Birth Outcomes in the Brazilian Semiarid. IZA Discussion Paper No. 6773, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2157915

Rudi Rocha (Contact Author)

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) ( email )

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Cidade Universitária
Rio de Janeiro - RJ, 21941-901
Brazil

Rodrigo R. Soares

Columbia University - School of International & Public Affairs (SIPA) ( email )

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New York, NY 10027
United States

Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) - Sao Paulo School of Economics ( email )

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São Paulo, São Paulo 01332-000
Brazil

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

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Germany

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