A New Data Set of Educational Inequality in the World, 1950-2010: Gini Index of Education by Age Group
W, Benaabdelaali., S, Hanchane., A, Kamal. (2012), Chapter 13 Educational Inequality in the World, 1950–2010: Estimates from a New Dataset, in John A. Bishop, Rafael Salas (ed.) Inequality, Mobility and Segregation: Essays in Honor of Jacques Silber (Research on Economic Inequality, Volume 20), Emer
33 Pages Posted: 27 Jul 2011 Last revised: 14 Mar 2014
Date Written: July 1, 2011
The research on educational inequality plays an essential role in characterizing the fairness and effectiveness of educational systems, and monitoring and evaluating processes of educational development. This paper introduces a new quinquennial data set of educational inequality of 146 countries, from 1950 to 2010, and it is the first to present a Gini index of education by 5-year age intervals and by sex for a broad panel. We use the Gini index of education as a measure of the distribution of years of schooling, with a more in-depth approach, compared to existing data sets (Castelló and Doménech, 2002; Thomas et al., 2001, 2003; Checchi, 2004; Araujo et al., 2004; Lim and Tang, 2008; Földvári and Van Leeuwen, 2010; Morrisson and Murtin, 2010; Meschi and Scervini, 2010; Castelló, 2010a). We use data on educational attainment of Barro and Lee (2010) taking into consideration, for the first time, the over time changes on the duration of schooling cycles, in each country and for each age group. This approach can significantly improve the measurement of inequality in education by producing estimates of the Gini Index of Education more realistic and reliable especially when it comes to international comparisons. We made a decomposition of the overall educational inequality to measure the contribution of each component. The results show that (i) even though educational inequality has been declining for most countries during the last six decades, it is not occurring in a uniform manner because it depends on age group, gender and development level for each country or region. (ii) The data indicate the existence of the Education Kuznets Curve when we consider the standard deviation of schooling. (iii) It also suggests that the average years of schooling and the Gini index of education are negatively related.
Keywords: Educational inequality, Gini index of Education, Educational attainment, Age Group, Duration of schooling cycles
JEL Classification: D63, I21, J24, O15
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation