The Geographic Reach of Market and Non-Market Channels of Technology Transfer: Comparing Citations and Licenses of University Patents

Posted: 24 Nov 2009

See all articles by David C. Mowery

David C. Mowery

University of California, Berkeley - Haas School of Business; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Arvids A. Ziedonis

KU Leuven - Faculty of Economics and Business; Department of Management, Strategy, and Innovation

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Date Written: 2001

Abstract

Most literature on the economic contributions ofuniversity research has focused on the extent to which these contributions arelocalized; as a result, little has been written about the effects of distanceon the flow of knowledge through different channels.In reality,university-based research affects regional economic and innovative activitythrough two channels: knowledge spillovers and market-based channels such astechnology licensing or various types of employment relationships betweenacademic scientists and firms. Data (primarily internal records) from the technology transfer offices atColumbia University, Stanford University, and the University of California areused in a comparison of the localization of outflows of university researchthrough citations to university patents and through licenses that involve thesesame patents.These data reveal that knowledge flows taking place throughmarket transactions are more likely to be geographically localized than thosetaking place through non-market "spillovers."Exclusively licenseduniversity patents are particularly subject to the differential effects ofdistance on learning and citations.This finding may reflect other,unobserved differences between the characteristics of university inventionsthat are licensed exclusively and non-exclusively.(SAA)

Keywords: Stanford University, University of California, Columbia University, Geographic distribution, Knowledge transfer, Technology transfer, Academic research, University-industry relations, Patent licenses, Patents

Suggested Citation

Mowery, David C. and Ziedonis, Arvids Alexander, The Geographic Reach of Market and Non-Market Channels of Technology Transfer: Comparing Citations and Licenses of University Patents (2001). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1510614

David C. Mowery (Contact Author)

University of California, Berkeley - Haas School of Business ( email )

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2220 Piedmont Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Arvids Alexander Ziedonis

KU Leuven - Faculty of Economics and Business; Department of Management, Strategy, and Innovation ( email )

Warmoesberg 26
Brussels, 1000
Belgium

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