O Sister, Where Art Thou? The Role of Son Preference and Sex Choice: Evidence from Immigrants to Canada

39 Pages Posted: 5 Oct 2009 Last revised: 6 Oct 2010

See all articles by Douglas Almond

Douglas Almond

Columbia University - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Lena Edlund

Columbia University - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Economics

Kevin S. Milligan

University of British Columbia (UBC) - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Date Written: October 2009

Abstract

Sex ratios at birth are above the biologically normal level in a number of Asian countries, notably India and China. Standard explanations include poverty and a cultural emphasis on male offspring. We study Asian immigrants to Canada using Census data, focussing on sex ratios across generations and religious groups. We find sex ratios to be normal at first parity, but rising with parity if there were no previous son. Since these immigrants are neither poor nor live in a society tolerant of sex discrimination/sex selection, our findings are more consistent with a preference for sons per se (and not for sons as a means to, e.g., old age support). Additionally, we uncover strong differences by religious affiliation that align with historical differences in doctrine concerning infanticide. Comparing across generations of Asian immigrants, we find fertility responds strongly to the sex composition of older children for first generation families. For the second generation, expression of son preference through the fertility channel is muted whereas sex selection seems to persist.

Suggested Citation

Almond, Douglas Vincent and Edlund, Lena and Milligan, Kevin S., O Sister, Where Art Thou? The Role of Son Preference and Sex Choice: Evidence from Immigrants to Canada (October 2009). NBER Working Paper No. w15391, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1482109

Douglas Vincent Almond (Contact Author)

Columbia University - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Economics ( email )

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National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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Lena Edlund

Columbia University - Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Economics ( email )

420 W. 118th Street
New York, NY 10027
United States
212-854-5489 (Phone)
212-854-8059 (Fax)

Kevin S. Milligan

University of British Columbia (UBC) - Department of Economics ( email )

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Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1
Canada

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

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