The Multiple Faces of Corruption: Typology, Forms and Levels

20 Pages Posted: 15 Nov 2009 Last revised: 24 Mar 2010

See all articles by José G. Vargas-Hernández

José G. Vargas-Hernández

University Center for Economic and Managerial Sciences, University of Guadalajara

Date Written: October 21, 2009

Abstract

This paper is aimed to analyze the multiple forms and faces of corruption, its typology and levels. The analysis begins reviewing a tipology categorizing political corruption, economic corruption and public administration corruption and showing some examples of tipologies, stablishing the levels of corruption and indicating where can be encountered. It is concluded that corruption is just as multifaceted concept as there are societies and economic and political systems, embracing from the broad concept of corruption to the narrow legal concept of bribery. However, it is difficult to assess the overall levels of corruption phenomena based on empirical or perceived data which do not reflects the realities of corruption world.

Keywords: corruption, forms of corruption, levels of corruption

JEL Classification: D63, D72, D73, D74

Suggested Citation

Vargas Hernández, José Guadalupe, The Multiple Faces of Corruption: Typology, Forms and Levels (October 21, 2009). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1413976 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1413976

José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández (Contact Author)

University Center for Economic and Managerial Sciences, University of Guadalajara ( email )

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