Employment Versus Wage Adjustment and the U.S. Dollar
39 Pages Posted: 3 Nov 2008
Date Written: April 1999
Using two decades of annual data, we explore the links between real exchange rates and employment, wages and overtime activity in specific U.S. manufacturing industries. Across two-digit industry levels of aggregation, exchange rate movements do not have large effects on numbers of jobs or onhours worked. More substantial effects are picked up in industry wages, especially for industries characterized by low price-over-cost markup ratios, and in overtime wages and overtime employment. The industry-by-industry pattern of wage responsiveness is not strongly related toindustry export orientation or changes in overall external orientation. Industries with low price overcost markups and those with a less skilled workforce exhibit relatively larger employment elasticities but lower wage elasticities.
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