Carliss Y. Baldwin

Harvard Business School

William L. White Professor of Business Administration, Emerita

Boston, MA 02163

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

58

DOWNLOADS
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Top 1,212

in Total Papers Downloads

27,727

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 6,473

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 6,473

in Total Papers Citations

152

CROSSREF CITATIONS

55

Ideas:
“  Design Rules Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations  ”

Scholarly Papers (58)

1.

Modeling a Paradigm Shift: From Producer Innovation to User and Open Collaborative Innovation

Organization Science 22(6):1399-1417., Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 10-038
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 09 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 30 Jun 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin and Eric A. von Hippel
Harvard Business School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Downloads 6,732 (1,213)
Citation 97

Abstract:

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user innovation, modularity, open innovation, collaborative innovation

2.

Organizations and Markets: History and Development of the Ccmo Course and the Field (1st of 4 Ccmo Documents)

Number of pages: 29 Posted: 21 Apr 1998
Harvard Business School, HBS Negotiations, Organizations and Markets Unit, Harvard Business School and Ohio State University - Fisher College of Business, Department of Finance
Downloads 5,190 (1,881)
Citation 1

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3.

The Architecture of Platforms: A Unified View

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 09-034
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 11 Sep 2008
Carliss Y. Baldwin and C. Jason Woodard
Harvard Business School and Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering
Downloads 1,716 (12,194)
Citation 50

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4.

The Option Value of Modularity in Design: An Example From Design Rules, Volume 1: The Power of Modularity

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 02-13; Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 02-078
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 17 May 2002
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 1,176 (21,870)
Citation 10

Abstract:

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Technological Innovation, Real Options, Information Goods, Design, Modularity, Experimentation, Modular Design Evolution, Industry Evolution

5.

Bottlenecks, Modules and Dynamic Architectural Capabilities

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 15-028
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 21 Oct 2014 Last Revised: 09 Jun 2015
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 1,072 (25,009)
Citation 6

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architecture, architectural knowledge, dynamic capabilities, bottleneck, modularity, organization design, organization boundaries, property rights

6.

How User Innovations Become Commercial Products: A Theoretical Investigation and Case Study

MIT Sloan Research Paper No. 4572-06, HBS Finance Working Paper No. 876967, Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 06-13
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 Jan 2006
Christoph Hienerth, Eric A. von Hippel and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management and Harvard Business School
Downloads 1,069 (25,117)
Citation 59

Abstract:

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user innovations, user-manufacturers

7.

Modularity after the Crash

Harvard NOM Research Paper No. 01-05
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 13 Aug 2001
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 784 (38,858)
Citation 3

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Modularity, Modular Design, Modular Cluster, Modular Organization, Design Evolution, Real Options, dot.com, Bubble, Crash

8.

The Fundamental Theorem of Design Economics

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 02-12; Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 02-077
Number of pages: 9 Posted: 17 May 2002
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 684 (46,752)
Citation 1

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Technological Innovation, Real Options, Information Goods, Design, Modularity, Experimentation, Modular Design Evolution

9.

Where Do Transactions Come From? A Network Design Perspective on the Theory of the Firm

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 06-12
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 17 May 2006
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 540 (63,261)
Citation 4

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transaction, transaction cost, modularity, encapsulation, information flows, division of cognitive labor, network, network design

10.

Designs and Design Architecture: The Missing Link between 'Knowledge' and the 'Economy'

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 05-01, HBS Finance Working Paper No. 664043
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 08 Feb 2005
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 531 (64,536)

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11.

Organization Design for Business Ecosystems

Journal of Organization Design, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012
Number of pages: 4 Posted: 01 Dec 2012 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2015
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 527 (65,183)
Citation 6

Abstract:

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Organization design, business ecosystems

12.

The Impact of Component Modularity on Design Evolution: Evidence from the Software Industry

Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Research Paper No. 08-038
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 16 Dec 2007
Alan MacCormack, John Rusnak and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management, Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 511 (67,715)
Citation 19

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13.

Modularity for Value Appropriation – How to Draw the Boundaries of Intellectual Property

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 11-054
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 11 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 28 Feb 2015
Joachim Henkel and Carliss Y. Baldwin
TUM School of Management - Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard Business School
Downloads 467 (75,758)
Citation 9

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Modularity, value appropriation, intellectual property, open innovation, design

14.

Where Do Transactions Come from? A Perspective from Engineering Design

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 02-33; HBS Working Paper No.03-031
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 06 Sep 2002
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 448 (79,555)
Citation 8

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Transaction, Transaction Cost, Modularity, Encapsulation, Information Flows, Division of Cognitive Labor, Network, Engineering Design

15.

IP Modularity: Profiting from Innovation by Aligning Product Architecture with Intellectual Property

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 13-012, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Working Paper No. 13-012
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 02 Aug 2012 Last Revised: 08 May 2013
Joachim Henkel, Carliss Y. Baldwin and Willy Shih
TUM School of Management - Technical University of Munich (TUM), Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 446 (79,981)
Citation 6

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Modularity, value appropriation, distributed innovation, open innovation, intellectual property

16.

Exploring the Duality between Product and Organizational Architectures: A Test of the Mirroring Hypothesis

Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Research Paper No. 08-039, Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 08-039
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 13 Mar 2008 Last Revised: 28 Jan 2011
Alan MacCormack, John Rusnak and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management, Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 420 (85,816)
Citation 17

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17.

When Open Architecture Beats Closed: The Entrepreneurial Use of Architectural Knowledge

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 10-063
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 09 Feb 2010 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2010
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 416 (86,768)
Citation 9

Abstract:

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architecture, innovation, knowledge, modularity, dynamics, competition, industry evolution

18.

The Mirroring Hypothesis: Theory, Evidence and Exceptions

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 16-124
Number of pages: 75 Posted: 27 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 30 Aug 2017
Lyra Colfer and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Broadway Technology and Harvard Business School
Downloads 413 (87,475)
Citation 7

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Modularity, innovation, complex technical systems, product architecture, industry architecture, organization design, design structure, organizational structure, organizational ties, mirroring hypothesis

19.

The Pricing and Profitability of Modular Clusters

HBS Working Paper No. 04-006; Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 03-49
Number of pages: 64 Posted: 08 Oct 2003
Kim B. Clark, C. Jason Woodard and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School, Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering and Harvard Business School
Downloads 407 (89,002)

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oligopolistic pricing, vertical integration, modularity, cluster

20.

The Technology of Design and its Problems

Harvard NOM Working Paper No. 02-14; Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 02-076
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 17 May 2002
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 374 (98,112)

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Comparative Institutional Analysis, Technological Innovation, Design, Modularity, Experimentation, Modular Design Evolution, Industry Evolution

21.

Hidden Structure: Using Network Methods to Map System Architecture

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 13-093, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Working Paper No. 13-093
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 13 Jun 2013 Last Revised: 29 Apr 2014
Carliss Y. Baldwin, Alan MacCormack and John Rusnak
Harvard Business School, Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 348 (106,378)
Citation 7

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Product Design, Architecture, Modularity, Software, Dominant Designs

22.

The Sciences of Design: Observations on an Emerging Field

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 09-056
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 14 Oct 2008
Bentley University, Harvard Business School, University of South Florida - College of Business Administration, Georgia State University, Roskilde University, Pennsylvania State University and Georgia State University
Downloads 346 (107,106)
Citation 15

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Design research, sciences of design, design as science, discipline, body of knowledge, system of professions

23.

The Impact of Modularity on Intellectual Property and Value Appropriation

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 12-040
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 12 Dec 2011 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2012
Carliss Y. Baldwin and Joachim Henkel
Harvard Business School and TUM School of Management - Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Downloads 337 (110,346)
Citation 5

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Modularity, value appropriation, intellectual property

24.

Organization Design for Distributed Innovation

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 12-100
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 11 May 2012
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 309 (121,159)
Citation 2

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25.

The Architecture of Complex Systems: Do Core-Periphery Structures Dominate?

MIT Sloan Research Paper No. 4770-10, Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 1539115
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 19 Jan 2010
Alan MacCormack, Carliss Y. Baldwin and John Rusnak
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management, Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 284 (132,478)
Citation 13

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26.

The Architecture of Transaction Networks: A Comparative Analysis of Hierarchy in Two Sectors

Industrial and Corporate Change, Forthcoming, Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 11-076
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 01 Feb 2011 Last Revised: 16 Jun 2012
Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Harvard Business School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development (CTPID) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Downloads 256 (147,326)
Citation 1

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transactions, networks, vertical integration, hierarchy, industry architecture, innovation

27.

Risky Business: The Impact of Property Rights on Investment and Revenue in the Film Industry

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 13-007, UNC Kenan-Flagler Research Paper No. 2013-2
Number of pages: 48 Posted: 23 Jul 2012 Last Revised: 15 Jan 2013
Venkat Kuppuswamy and Carliss Y. Baldwin
D'Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University and Harvard Business School
Downloads 228 (164,847)
Citation 2

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Vertical integration, property rights, performance

28.

Sharing Design Rights: A Commons Approach for Developing Infrastructure

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 14-025
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 07 Sep 2013 Last Revised: 21 Jan 2014
Nuno A. Gil and Carliss Y. Baldwin
University of Manchester and Harvard Business School
Downloads 221 (169,847)
Citation 5

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29.

Digital Agility: The Impact of Software Portfolio Architecture on IT System Evolution

Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Mgt. Unit Working Paper No. 17-105, Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 17-105
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 27 May 2017 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2017
Harvard Business School, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, ESB Business School and Harvard Business School
Downloads 214 (175,061)

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Information Systems, Software, Architecture, Modularity, Agility, Coupling.

30.

Design Rules Volume 2: Chapter 14 Open Platforms and the Vertical-to-Horizontal Transition of the Computer Industry

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 212 (176,631)
Citation 4

Abstract:

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

31.

Modularity and Intellectual Property Protection

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 14-046
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 14 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 13 Mar 2015
Carliss Y. Baldwin and Joachim Henkel
Harvard Business School and TUM School of Management - Technical University of Munich (TUM)
Downloads 201 (185,655)
Citation 6

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Modularity, value appropriation, intellectual property, relational contracts, clans

32.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 11 Platform Systems vs. Step Processes - The Value of Options and the Power of Modularity

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 29 Jan 2019 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 149 (240,268)
Citation 11

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

33.

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations: Chapter 16 Capturing Value by Controlling Bottlenecks in Open Platform Systems

Harvard Business School, Harvard Business School Research Paper Series # 20-054
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 93 (337,218)

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34.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 15 The IBM PC

Harvard Business School Research Paper Series # 19-074
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 28 Jan 2019 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 92 (339,519)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

35.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 5—Ecosystems and Complementarities

Baldwin, C. Y. (2020) “Ecosystems and Complementarity” Harvard Business School Working Paper (August 2020).
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 77 (377,889)

Abstract:

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

36.

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations: Chapter 17 The Wintel Standards-based Platform

Harvard Business School, Harvard Business School Research Paper Series # 20-055
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 08 Nov 2019
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 73 (389,353)

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37.

Design Rules Volume 2: Chapter 2—Transactions in a Task Network

Baldwin, C. Y. (2020) “Transactions in a Task Network” Harvard Business School Working Paper (August 2020).
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 55 (449,468)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

38.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 6—The Value Structure of Technologies, Part 1: Mapping Functional Components

Baldwin, C. Y. (2020) “The Value Structure of Technologies, Part 1: Mapping Functional Relationships,” Harvard Business School Working Paper (Rev. September 2020).
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 45 (489,455)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

39.

Design Rules Volume 2: Chapter 7—The Value Structure of Technologies Part 2: Strategy without Numbers

Baldwin, C. Y. (2020) “The Value Structure of Technologies, Part 2: Strategy without Numbers,” Harvard Business School Working Paper (Rev. September 2020).
Number of pages: 19 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 42 (502,752)

Abstract:

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

40.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 3—Transaction Free Zones

“Transaction Free Zones” Harvard Business School Working Paper (Aug 2020).
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 42 (502,752)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

41.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 4—The Mirroring Hypothesis: Linkages Inside and Across Transaction Free Zones

Baldwin, C. Y. (2020) “The Mirroring Hypothesis: Inside and Across Transaction Free Zones,” Harvard Business School Working Paper (August 2020).
Number of pages: 26 Posted: 16 Sep 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 34 (541,706)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

42.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 10—Variations on the Theme of Mass Production

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations, 2020
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Dec 2020 Last Revised: 17 Jun 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 33 (547,011)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

43.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 8—Rationalizing Flow Processes

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations, 2020
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 23 Dec 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 29 (569,181)

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Technologies, Organizations, Modularity

44.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 9—Organizing to Rationalize

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations, 2020
Number of pages: 25 Posted: 23 Dec 2020
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 27 (581,306)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

45.

In the Shadow of the Crowd: A Comment on 'Valve’s Way'

Journal of Organization Design, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2015), p. 5-7
Number of pages: 3 Posted: 18 Jul 2019
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 26 (587,763)

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new forms of organizing, organizational forms, non-hierarchical organizations, self-organizing teams, boss-less organizations

46.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 12—The Planar Process and Moore's Law

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations, 2021
Number of pages: 51 Posted: 30 Jun 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 17 (649,034)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

47.

Design Rules, Volume 2: Chapter 13—The Slowly Changing Structure of the Semiconductor Industry

Design Rules, Volume 2: How Technology Shapes Organizations, 2021
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 30 Jun 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 12 (686,148)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

48.

Design Rules Volume 2: Table of Contents with Chapter Abstracts

Number of pages: 14 Posted: 22 Jul 2021
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School
Downloads 2 (765,820)

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Technology, Organizations, Modularity

49.

Explaining the Vertical-to-Horizontal Transition in the Computer Industry

Posted: 09 May 2017 Last Revised: 10 May 2017
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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Modularity, innovation, product and process development, organization design, design structure, organizational structure, organizational ties

50.

Modularity and Organizations

Harvard Business School Finance Working Paper No. 13-046
Posted: 21 Nov 2012
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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complex systems, information hiding, loosely-coupled systems, mirroring, mirroring hypothesis, modules, modularity, organizational design, near-decomposable systems, product architecture, option value

51.

A Glossary of Technical Terms Related to Bankruptcy in the U.S.

Harvard Business School Finance Case No. 212-081
Posted: 07 May 2012
Carliss Y. Baldwin and Rajiv Mehta
Harvard Business School and New Jersey Institute of Technology - Martin Tuchman School of Management

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52.

Roche's Acquisition of Genentech

Harvard Business School Finance Case No. 210-040
Posted: 02 Feb 2012
Carliss Y. Baldwin, Bo Becker and Vincent Dessain
Harvard Business School, Stockholm School of Economics and Harvard Business School - Finance Unit; European Research Center

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53.

The Congressional Oversight Panel's Valuation of the TARP Warrants (A)

HBS Case No. 210-035, Harvard Business School Finance Unit
Posted: 21 Mar 2010
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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54.

The Congressional Oversight Panel's Valuation of the TARP Warrants (B)

HBS Case No. 210-036, Harvard Business School Finance Unit
Posted: 21 Mar 2010
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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55.

Mellon Financial and the Bank of New York

HBS Case No. 208-129, Harvard Business School Finance Unit
Posted: 27 Dec 2009
Carliss Y. Baldwin and Ryan Taliaferro
Harvard Business School and Acadian Asset Management

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56.

Evaluating M&A Deals: Floors, Caps, and Collars

HBS Note No. 209-138, Harvard Business School Finance Unit
Posted: 21 May 2009
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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57.

Where Do Transactions Come from? Modularity, Transactions, and the Boundaries of Firms

Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 155-195, 2008
Posted: 22 Jun 2008
Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School

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58.

Modularity-in-Design: An Analysis Based on the Theory of Real Options

Posted: 25 Aug 1998
Kim B. Clark and Carliss Y. Baldwin
Harvard Business School and Harvard Business School

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